Evaluation of the policy landscape on edible oils and fats and assessment of dietary sources of Trans fat and evidence of dietary intake in Nepal
World Health Organization, Nepal
Evidence has become clear that TFAs provide no nutritional benefits and are even more harmful than SFAs in increasing serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hence CVD risk, compared with consumption of diets containing cis-MUFA or cis-PUFA. TFAs increase CVD risk or myocardial infarction by increasing the ratio of “bad” LDL cholesterol to “good” HDL cholesterol, promoting inflammation, and causing dysfunction in the lining of the heart and blood vessels. Besides CVD, trans-fat intake is associated with diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, breast cancer, impaired fertility, endometriosis and cholelithiasis. The available evidence indicates that TFAs from ruminant sources has similar adverse effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins as TFAs from industrial sources, when consumed in equal amounts; however in meat and dairy products, naturally-occurring TFAs (ruminant TFAs), do not exceed 6 per cent of total fatty acids compared to up to 60 per cent of total fatty in partially-hydrogenated oils (PHOs).
In May 2018, World Health Organization (WHO) recommended TFAs (industrially-produced and ruminant) intake for adults and children to no more than 1 per cent of total energy for both adults and children, or 2.2g per day for a 2,000-calorie diet. Similarly, in May 2019, WHO has also released the REPLACE action package, a step-by-step guide for eliminating TFAs from the global food supply by 2023.
This study will pass and enforce best-practice legal measures to eliminate industrially produced TFA from the national food supply.
- To conduct a policy landscape analysis to understand the policies, regulations and legislations governing edible oils and fats including industrially produced trans fats
- To analyze trans-fat content in commonly consumed vegetable oils and foods in Nepal
The findings will provide the in- depth information needed by governments to initiate an evidence based, systematic policy process for TFA elimination. The findings will help in raising awareness regarding this critical issue among policy makers, program people, researchers, as well as the general population.