Evidence of dietary Intake and Assessment of Salt Concentration in Commonly Consumed Foods in Nepal
Research Tools has been developed in consultation with WHO, data collection is planned and the process of lab finalization has reached its final stage.
World Health Organization, Nepal
Kathmandu, Chitwan, Rasuwa
High dietary salt intake is associated with high blood pressure which is recognized as a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in particular cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including heart attack and stroke. Seventy-three percent (41 million) of all global deaths in 2017 are attributable to NCDs, with a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries with significant health, social and economic consequences. Further, CVD-related deaths attributable to excess salt intake have been estimated at 1.7 million deaths annually worldwide. Globally, populations are consuming excessive amounts of salt, with the worldwide estimated mean salt intake being almost 9‐12 g/day, in many countries and even higher intakes are found in Asia, which is associated with negative effects on health. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends consuming less than 2 grams of sodium or 5 grams of salt per day amongst adults. Primary sources of sodium intake come from salt, which provides ~ 90% of dietary sodium, but also comes from salt in processed or prepared foods, including sodium bicarbonate (i.e., baking soda) and mono-sodium glutamate (i.e., MSG). Knowing the main sources of salt in the diet is essential for reducing dietary salt intake. In Nepal, nutrition databases used to estimate sodium in individual foods are sparse, exacerbated by the lack of compliance with nutrition labeling and inaccuracies. New urban living patterns are marked by less time for home food preparation and the increased accessibility and availability of high salt foods observed in LMICs settings including Nepal, may likely contribute to high dietary salt intake. Today, high salt containing foods are commonly consumed in, including bread, instant noodles, packaged snack foods, such as crisps and crackers, canned foods, and salty sauces, such as soy sauce. Furthermore, the rapid growth of supermarkets and fast-food outlets is further contributing to the availability of processed foods and commercially prepared meals may result in an increase in salt intake.
To access the salt content in most commonly consumed foods in Nepal.
The findings will provide in- depth information about the main sources of dietary salt intake among Nepalese population and their salt levels inform the national authorities to decide on the appropriate action to reduce salt intake.